Mitigate the effects of climate change and man-made hazard and adapt to the changing environment
The main characteristics of climate change are increases in average global temperature (global warming); changes in cloud cover and precipitation particularly over land; melting of ice caps and glaciers and reduced snow cover; and increases in ocean temperatures and ocean acidity – due to seawater absorbing heat and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
Mitigation: Design schemes to reduce climate
change. Avoid significant human interference
with the climate system, and stabilize
greenhouse gas levels in a time frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change
Reduces the flow of heat-trapping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.
Reducing sources of gases (burning of fossil fuels for electricity, heat or transport).
Ensure that food production is not threatened Enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner
Adaptation: Adapt to life in a changing climate
Reduce vulnerability to the harmful effects of
climate change (like sea-level encroachment,
more intense extreme weather events or food
Make the most of any potential beneficial
opportunities associated with climate change
e.g. longer growing seasons or increased yields in some regions.
Safeguards character, cultural heritage and ensure sustainability using the Circular Economy
Minimize waste, emission, and energy leakage by slowing, closing, and narrowing energy and material loops. This is achieved using the ten R’s
Refuse: Make product redundant by abandoning its function or by offering the same function with a radically different product
Rethink: Make product use more intensive (e.g. by sharing product)
Reduce: Increase efficiency in product manufacture or use by consuming fewer natural resources and materials
Reuse by another consumer of discarded product, which is still in good condition and fulfills its original function
Repair and maintenance of defective product so it can be used with its original function
Refurbish an old product and bring it up to date
Remanufacture: Use parts of discarded product in a new product with the same function
Repurpose: Use discarded product or its parts in a new product with a different function
Recycle: Process materials to obtain the same (high grade) or lower (low grade) quality
Recover Incineration of material with energy recovery
Integrates renewable energy sources, reduce CO2 emissions, increase biodiversity and exploit ‘green’ technology
Renewable energy sources replenish themselves naturally without being depleted in the earth; they include bioenergy, hydropower, geothermal energy, solar energy, wind energy and ocean (tide and wave)
energy; considered as clean sources of energy
Tidal energy: Tidal power can be generated in two ways, tidal stream generators or barrage generation. The power created though tidal
generators is more environmentally friendly and causes less impact on established ecosystems.
Wave power: Wave power is the transport of energy by ocean surface waves, and the capture of that energy Wave energy can be difficult to harness due to the unpredictability of the ocean and wave direction.
Wind power: Wind power is the conversion of wind energy by wind turbines into electricity or mechanical energy. Large-scale wind farms are typically connected to the local power transmission network with small turbines used to provide electricity to isolated areas
Hydropower: Water power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed to generate electricity
Solar energy: Photovoltaic (PV) Solar power is harnessing the suns energy to produce electricity. Solar cells are becoming more
efficient, transportable and flexible, allowing for easy installation..
Geothermal energy: Geothermal energy is an efficient way to extract a renewable energy from the earth through natural processes. Geothermal power is cost effective, reliable, and environmentally friendly, but has been geographically limited to areas near tectonic
Bio energy: Biomass refers to living and dead biological material that can be used as fuel or for industrial production. Biomass may also include biodegradable wastes that can be burnt as fuel