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  • Writer's pictureRaj Rooprai

Circular Economy

Circular Economy

The traditional 'linear' model preaches the concept of 'make, break, and discard'. The circular economy is a concept in which everything is engineered to be constantly reused or recycled. It requires rethinking of design, manufacturing, selling, re-using, recycling and consumer ownership to keep resources in use for as long as possible and to extract maximum value.

This is done by minimizing waste, emission, and energy leakage by slowing, closing, and narrowing energy and material loops. This is achieved using the ten R’s

  1. Refuse: Make product redundant by abandoning its function or by offering the same function with a radically different product

  2. Rethink: Make product use more intensive (e.g. by sharing product)

  3. Reduce: Increase efficiency in product manufacture or use by consuming fewer natural resources and materials

  4. Reuse by another consumer of discarded product, which is still in good condition and fulfills its original function

  5. Repair and maintenance of defective product so it can be used with its original function

  6. Refurbish an old product and bring it up to date

  7. Re-manufacture: Use parts of discarded product in a new product with the same function

  8. Re-purpose: Use discarded product or its parts in a new product with a different function

  9. Recycle: Process materials to obtain the same (high grade) or lower (low grade) quality

  10. Recover Incineration of material with energy recovery


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